Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) is the main responsible enzyme for the metabolism of caffeine. People with the AA genotype at rs762551 (within the CYP1A2 gene) are fast metabolizers, while those with the AC or CC are slow metabolizers. For people with normal caffeine metabolism it only takes 45 minutes for 99% of the caffeine to be absorbed through these membranes. In humans, the half-life for caffeine is anywhere from 4 to 6 hours on average, which explains why the average energy drink or coffee’s effect lasts about 4 to 6 hours. However those with genetic variations impairing their metabolism can become hypersensitive to Caffeine. These people react to very small amounts of caffeine. Even at amounts less than 100 mg, people who are hypersensitive to caffeine can experience overdose symptoms such as insomnia, jitters, and an increased heartbeat. For these people, it can take as much as twice as long for caffeine to metabolized.

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